TOXIGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES IN GIBBERELLA FUJIKUROI SPECIES COMPLEX (GFSC) ASSOCIATED WITH STALK AND EAR ROT DISEASE OF CORN
Fusarium stalk and ear rot disease did not only cause significant losses of yield but also produced mycotoxins that are harmful to animals and human. This study was conducted to elucidate three major mycotoxins i.e. fumonisin B1 (FUMB1), moniliformin (MON), and beauvericin (BEA) produced by the Fusarium spp. isolated from corn showing typical stalk and ear rot symptoms in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Twenty selected strains of Fusarium species in Gibberella fujikuroi species complex i.e. F.verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, and F. konzum were analyzed for production of the three mycotoxins by using an Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). All strains of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum produced FUMB1 at high levelsand MON at low levels. Many strains of F. verticillioides (67%) and F. proliferatum (50%) did not produce BEA while the others produced BEA at low levels. Two strains of F. subglutinans did not produce FUMB1 but produced MON at low levels. One strain of F. subglutinans produced BEA and the other one did not produce the toxin. Two strains of F. konzum produced both MON and BEA at low levels but only one strain produced FUMB1 at a low level. These mycotoxins have not been reported from Fusarium spp. in Gibberella fujikuroi species complex isolated form stalk and ear rot diseases of corn in these areas. Therefore, concerted efforts must be made to educate all stake holders about the presence and health hazards of these mycotoxins.
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