PATHOGENICITY OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH POST-HARVEST DETERIORATION OF TWO COCOYAM VARIETIES (C. ESCULENTA VAR. ANTIQUORUM AND C. ESCULENTA VAR. ESCULENTA) SCHOTT IN SOME PARTS OF JOS

Pandukur S. Garba, Plangnan G. Alexander, Amienyo C. Ada

Abstract


An investigation was carried out to test for the pathogenicity of fungi associated with the deterioration of two varieties of cocoyam corms and cormels. Fifty (50) infected corms and cormels with symptoms of post-harvest rots were purchased from six markets within Plateau Central zone and analyzed. Eleven (11) fungal isolates were implicated in the deterioration of the two varieties of the cocoyam (C. esculenta var. antiquorum and C. esculenta var. esculenta) corms and cormels and were identified as; Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticilium lateritium, Botryodiplodia theobramae, Colletotrichum coccoides, Phythium myriotylum, Fusarium verticillioides, Rhizopus stolonifer and Geotricum candidum. The result showed that all these fungi were highly virulent on the two varieties, except C. coccoides, F. verticillioides and A. alternata which did not caused rot on C. esculenta var. esculenta. Meanwhile, the fungus Rhizopus stolonifer induced the highest percentage mean area of rot (39.96%) followed by Alternaria alternata (39.36%), Phythium myriotylum (38.60%), Botryodiplodia theobromae (36.89%) while the least was Fusarium oxysporium (27.66%) in C. esculenta var. antiquorum. The study further revealed the highest rot induced on C. esculenta var. esculenta by the isolated fungi, V. lateritium (42.45%) followed by G. candidum (34.29%), F. oxysporum (27.96%) while the least was Rhizopus stolonifer (20.33%). The result also showed that C. esculenta var. esculenta was comparatively more susceptible or significant (P<0.05) to the fungus V. lateritium since it showed a greater (extensive) mean percentage area of rots of 42.45% on the corms and cormels than on C. esculenta var. antiquorum with 36.01%.


Keywords


Pathogenicity; Fungi; Post-harvest; Cocoyam varieties; Deterioration; Jos.

References


Agrios, G. N. 2005. Plant Pathology, 5th ed., Academic Press, New York. 520-530.

Aggarawal. A., K. L. Narula, G. Kaur and R. S. Mehrotra. 1990. Phytophthora colocasia Racib., - Its Taxonomy, Physiology, Pathology and Control. In: Perspectives in Mycological Research 2, S. K. Hasija and K.S (Eds.) Today and Tomorrows Printer, New Delhi. 105-134.

Aguegui, A. C. A. Fatukun and S. K. Haln. 1992. Protein analysis of ten cocoyam, Xanthosoma, sagittifolium (L) Schott and Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott, Root crops for food security in Africa, proceedings of the 5th Triennial symposium, Kampala, Uganda. pp.348.

Anukworji, C. A., R. R. Putheti and R. N. Okigbo2012. Isolation of fungi causing rot of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) and control with plant extracts:(Allium sativum, L., Garcinia kola, heckel., Azadirachta indica, L. and Carica papaya, L.). Glo. Adv. Res. J. Agric. Sci, 1, 33-47.

Brunt, J., D. Hunter and C. Delp. 2001. A Bibliography of Taro Leaf Blight. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) AusAID taro genetic resources: conservation and utilization. Noumea, New Caledonia. 93pp.

Brooks, F. E. 2000. Cultivar Resistance to Taro Leaf Blight Disease in American Samoa, American Samoa Technical Report, 34, 49-58.

Domsch, K. H., W. Gams and T. H. Anderson. 1980. Compendium of soil fungi, 2 Vols. London: Academic press.

Chiejina. N. V and F. N. Ugwuja. 2013. Incidence of Phytophthora Leaf-Blight disease of cocoyam in Nsukka area of South Eastern Nigeria. J. of So? Res. 4 (1): 21-24.

Clement, Z. k and E. S. Voros. 1974. Methods in Pathology. Elsvier Scientific Publishing Co., Amsterdam, London 220-288pp.

Ellis, D. H. 2005b. Systemic Zygomycetes-Mucormycosis. In Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections: Medical Mycology, 10th edition, pp33-36.

Ellis, D. H., D. Stephen, A. Helen, H. Rosemary and B. Robyn. 2007. Descriptions of Medical Fungi. 2nd ed. Hodder Arnold London, Australia. 187 pp.

Eze, C. C. and E. C. Okorji. 2003. Cocoyam production by women farmers under improved and local technology in Imo state, Nigeria, African J. Sciences 5(1): 113-116.http://www.fao.org.

Eze, C. C, and J. N. C. Maduewesi. 1990. Relationships of traditional Methods to the magnitude of storage losses of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott). Nig. J. Plant Protection 13:26 34.

IITA. 1993. Crop Improvement Division/Tuber root Improvement Program Archival Reports (1989 - 1993). Part III yam (Dioscorea spp). Ibadan, Nigeria, pp. 20-85.

Maduewesi, J. N. and C. Onyike. 1981. Fungal Rotting of Cocoyam in Storage of Nigeria. In: Terry Oduro and Caveness (eds), Proceedings of the 1st Triennial Root crop Symposium of the INSTR. AB. Sept. 1990. Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 235-238.

Mehrotra, R. S. and A. Aggarawal. 2003. Plant Pathology, 2nd ed., Tata McGraw-Hill. New Delhi, New York: 846pp

Misra, R. S. 1993. Tropical Tuber Crops: Problems, Prospects and Future Strategies, Oxford and IBH, 380-388.

Offei, S. K., I. K. Asante and E. Y. Danquah. 2004. Genetic Structure of Seventy cocoyam Accessions In Ghana Based on RAPD. Hereditas 140:123 128.

Olurinola P. F., J. O. Ehimmadu and J. J. Bonire. 1992. Antifungal Activity of n-Tributylin Acetate against some common yam rots fungi. Applied and Envriomental Microbiol. 58(2): 758- 760.

Olutola, P. O., O. Famurewa and H. G. Somtag. 2000. An introduction to general microbiology: A practical Approach. Bolabary publications, Nigeria, 124 pp.

Onuegbu, B. A. 1999. Composition of four cocoyam cultivars and their tolerance to corm rot. Tropical Sci. 39: 136-139.

Onwueme, I. C. and W. B. Charles. 1994. Tropical root and tuber crops-production, perspectives and future prospects. FAO plant production and protection paper 126 pp.

Onwueme, I. C. 1999. Taro cultivation in Asia and the Pacifi. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia & the Pacific, RAP Publication No.16. Bangkok, Thailand. 50pp.

Samson, R. A., E. S. Hoekstra, J. C. Frisvad and O. Filtenborg. 1995. Introduction to food-borne fungi. Central bureau voor Schimmel cultures, P.O.Box 273, 3740 AG BAARN, The Netherlands.

Uguanyi J. O and J. A. Obeta. 1996. Fungi associated with storage rots of cocoyams (Colocasia spp) in Nsuka, Nigeria, Department of microbiology University of Nigeria Nsuka Mycopathologia, 134(1), 21-25.

Zuhair, M and D. G. Hunter. 2000. Taro cultivation and use in the maldwes. IPGR Session 12th Symp. Of IATRC, TSUKUBA. Japan.


Full Text: PDF XPS

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Pandukur S. Garba, Plangnan G. Alexander, Amienyo C. Ada

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.