MEASURING AND CURBING GENDER INEQUALITIES: A CROSS COUNTRY ANALYSIS

Sukriti Verma

Abstract


Discrimination against women and girls carry a high development cost. This paper captures and measures gender discrimination not only in economic dimensions but also in socio-political areas as well as inequalities in decision making power at the household level. The paper attempts to scientifically create a “Female Well being Index” through factor analysis, by identifying and using potential indicators in spheres currently absent even in the UNDP’s Gender Inequality Index. Using cross-country data, the paper further empirically stresses that empowerment is not primarily an outcome, but a process, which can be enabled through various policy interventions in political, economic as well as social spheres.


Keywords


Factor analysis; Female well-being Index; Gender inequalities; Impact analysis

Full Text:

PDF XPS

References


Agarwal, B. (1994). A field of one's own: Gender and land rights in South Asia (Vol. 58). Cambridge University Press.

Agarwal, B. (1997). Bargaining and Gender Relations: Within and Beyond the Household. Feminist Economics, 3(1), 1-51.

Beneria, L. (2007). Paid/unpaid work and the globalization of reproduction. Cornell University.

Branisa, B., Klasen, S., & Ziegler, M. (2009). The construction of the social institutions and gender index (SIGI) (No. 184). Discussion papers, Ibero America Institute for Economic Research.

Bredie, J. W., &Beeharry, G. K. (1998). School enrollment decline in sub-Saharan Africa: Beyond the supply constraint. The World Bank.

Chakraborty, L. S. (2011). Determining gender equity in fiscal federalism: Analytical issues and empirical evidence from India. Economics, Management & Financial Markets, 6(3).

Charmes, J., &Wieringa, S. (2003). Measuring women's empowerment: an assessment of the gender-related development index and the gender empowerment measure. Journal of Human

Development, 4(3), 419-435.

Chattopadhyay, R., &Duflo, E. (2004). Women as policy makers: Evidence from a randomized policy experiment in India. Econometrica, 72(5), 1409-1443.

Cueva Beteta, H. (2006). What is missing in measures of women's empowerment? Journal of human development, 7(2), 221-241.

Desai, M. (2010). Hope in hard times: Women's empowerment and human development.

Dey, J., & Dutta, S. (2014). Gender-responsive budgeting in India: Trends and Analysis. International Journal of Social Science, 3(4), 495.

Dollar, D., &Gatti, R. (1999). Gender inequality, income, and growth: are good times good for women? (Vol. 1). Washington, DC: Development Research Group, The World Bank.

Elson, D., &Keklik, H. (2002). The progress of the world’s women 2002. Gender equality and the Millennium Development Goals. UNIFEM biennial report. Volume 2.

Folbre, N. (2006). Measuring care: Gender, empowerment, and the care economy. Journal of human development, 7(2), 183-199.

Geske Dijkstra, A. (2006). Towards a fresh start in measuring gender equality: A contribution to the debate. Journal of Human Development, 7(2), 275-283.

Grown, C. (2010). Keynote Speech at the 54th CSW Meetings. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing15/hlroundtables/HLRT%20-%20Grown,%20Caren.pdf. Accessed 20 April 2015.

Hashemi, S. M., Schuler, S. R., & Riley, A. P. (1996). Rural credit programs and women's empowerment in Bangladesh. World development, 24(4), 635-653.

Klugman, J. (2009). Human development report 2009. Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development.

Lai, D. (2003). Principal component analysis on human development indicators of China. Social indicators research, 61(3), 319-330.

Mitra, A. (2010). Women’s employment in Asia-Pacific. Asia-Pacific Human Development Report Background Papers Series, 7.

Mitra, A. (2013). Gender Inequality in the Labour Market. In Insights into Inclusive Growth, Employment and Wellbeing in India (pp. 203-262). Springer, India.

Ogwang, T. (1994). The choice of principal variables for computing the Human Development Index. World development, 22(12), 2011-2014.

Permanyer, I. (2013). A critical assessment of the UNDP’s gender inequality index. Feminist Economics, 19(2), 1-32.

Schüler, D. (2006). The uses and misuses of the Gender‐Related Development Index and Gender Empowerment Measure: a review of the literature. Journal of Human Development, 7(2), 161-181.

Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stotsky, J.G. (2006). Gender Budgeting (IMF Working Paper No. WP/06/232). Retrieved from IMF website: www.imf.org/External/pubs/ft/wp/2006/wp06232. pdf.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Sukriti Verma

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  Journal of South Asian Studies
ISSN: 2307-4000 (Online), 2308-7846 (Print)
© ESci Journals Publishing. All Rights Reserved.