AMMI and GGE Biplot Analysis of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L) Genotypes in Central and South-Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia

Adane C. Chobe, Abebe D. Ararsa


Twelve linseed genotypes were evaluated in 13 environments during the main cropping season in central highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude and pattern of G × E interaction and yield stability in linseed genotypes. The study was conducted using randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Genotype × environment interaction and yield stability were estimated using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction and site regression genotype plus genotype × environment interaction biplot. Pooled analysis of variance for seed yield showed significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences among the genotypes, environments and G × E interaction effects. This indicated that the genotypes differentially responded to the changes in the test environments or the test environments differentially discriminated the genotypes or both. Environment effect was responsible for the greatest part of the variation, followed by G × E interaction and genotype effects, indicating spatial and temporal replications of linseed yield trials. The first three multiplicative component terms of AMMI were found to be significant. The first two multiplicative component terms sum of squares, with their cumulative degrees of freedom of 44, explained 62.9% of the interaction sum of squares. No single variety showed superior performance in all environments but CI-1525 demonstrated top ranking at six of the thirteen environments. The application of AMMI and GGE biplots facilitated the visual comparison and identification of superior genotypes, thereby supporting decisions on variety selection and recommendation in different environments


AMMI; Ethiopia; GGE biplot; Linseed; Stability

Full Text:



Abebe, D. and C. Adane. 2015. Response of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) to seed rates and seeding methods in South-Eastern highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 5: 218-223.

Adugna, W. and M. T. Labuschagne. 2002. Genotype-environment interactions and phenotypic stability analyses of linseed in Ethiopia. Plant Breeding, 121: 66-71.

Adugna, W. and M. T. Labuschagne. 2003. Parametric and non-parametric measures of phenotypic stability in linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) in Ethiopia. Euphytica, 129: 211-218.

Altai, F. 2010. Flax Seed Cak. Scientific and Production Association ‘Altai Flax’ LLC, Russia.

Bantayehu, G. 1965. Progress Report on Cereals, Oilseeds and Pulses. Experimental Station Bull No. 64. Haramaya University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

Berti, M., S. Fischer, R. Wilckens, F. Hevia and B. Johnson. 2010. Adaptation and genotype× environment interaction of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) genotypes in South Central Chile. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research, 70: 345-356.

Burgueño, J., J. Crossa and M. Vargas. 2001. SAS programs for graphing GE and GGE biplots. CIMMYT, Intl., Mexico.

CSA. 2016. Agricultural sample survey report on area and production of crops. Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia. Stat. Bul. , 1.

Dehghani, H., N. Sabaghnia and M. Moghaddam. 2008. Interpretation of Genotype-by-environment Interaction for Late Maize Hybrids' Grain Yield Using a Biplot Method. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 33: 139-148.

Ding, M., B. Tier and W. Yan. 2007. Application of GGE Biplot Analysis to Evaluate Genotype Environment and GxE interaction on P. radiata. Australasian Forest Genetics Conference. The Old Wool Store.

Ebdon, J. S. and H. G. Gauch. 2002. Additive Main Effect and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis of National Turfgrass Performance Trials. Crop Science, 42: 489-496.

Ersullo, L., Z. Habtamu and W. Adugna. 2016. AMMI Analysis of Yields and Oil Content in Some Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Genotypes in South and Central Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24: 79-98.

Gauch, H. G. 1988. Model Selection and Validation for Yield Trials with Interaction. Biometrics, 44: 705-715.

Gauch, H. G. and R. W. Zobel. 1997. Identifying Mega-Environments and Targeting Genotypes. Crop Science, 37: 311-326.

Getinet, A. and A. Nigussie. 1997. Highland Oil Crops: A Three-Decade Research Experience in Ethiopia. Research Report No. 30. Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Grüneberg, W. J., K. Manrique, D. Zhang and M. Hermann. 2005. Genotype × Environment Interactions for a Diverse Set of Sweetpotato Clones Evaluated across Varying Ecogeographic Conditions in Peru. Crop Science, 45: 2160-2171.

Hernandez, M. V. and J. Crossa. 2000. The AMMI analysis and graphing the biplot. Biometrics and Statistics Unit, CIMMYT, Mexico.

Jacobsz, M. J., W. J. C. V. Merwe and M. M. V. Westhuizen. 2015. Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis of European Linseed (Linum Ustatissimum L.) Cultivars under South African Conditions. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research, 2: 120-124.

Kaya, Y., M. Akçura and S. Taner. 2006. GGE-biplot analysis of multi-environment yield trials in bread wheat. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 30: 325-337.

Kempton, R. A. 1984. The use of biplots in interpreting variety by environment interactions. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 103: 123-135.

Lay, C. L. and C. D. Dybing. 1989. Linseed, In: G. Robbelin & R. K. Downey & A. Ashri, (eds.), Oil Crops of the World. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Ma, B. L., W. Yan, L. M. Dwyer, J. Fregeau-Reid, H. D. Voldeng, Y. Dion and H. Nass. 2004. Graphic analysis of genotype, environment, nitrogen fertilizer, and their interactions on spring wheat yield. Agronomy Journal, 96: 169-180.

MoANR. 2016. Plant variety release, protection and seed quality control. Crop Variety Register. Issue No. 18. Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Navabi, A., R.-C. Yang, J. Helm and D. M. Spaner. 2006. Can Spring Wheat-Growing Megaenvironments in the Northern Great Plains Be Dissected for Representative Locations or Niche-Adapted Genotypes? Crop Science, 46: 1107-1116.

SAS. 2002. Statistical Analysis Software Version 9., SAS/STAT Guide for Personal Computers. SAS Institute Inc., Carry, NC. United States.

Tadesse, T. 2017. AMMI Model for Yield Stability Analysis of Linseed Genotypes for the Highlands of Bale, Ethiopia. Plant, 5: 93-98.

Thangavel, P., A. Anandan and R. Eswaran. 2011. AMMI analysis to comprehend genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions in rainfed grown mungbean (Vigna radiata L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science, 5: 1767-1775.

Tolessa, T. T., G. Keneni, T. Sefera, M. Jarso and Y. Bekele. 2013. Genotype× environment interaction and performance stability for grain yield in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes. International Journal of plant breeding, 7: 116-123.

Vaisey-Genser, M. and D. H. Morris. 2010. Flaxseed: Health Nutrition and Functionality. Flax Council of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Yan, W. 2002. Singular-value partitioning in biplot analysis of multi-environment trial data. Agronomy Journal, 94: 990-996.

Yan, W. 2011. GGE Biplot vs. AMMI graphs for genotype-by-environment data analysis. Journal of the Indian Society of Agricultural Statistics, 65: 181-193.

Yan, W., P. L. Cornelius, J. Crossa and L. A. Hunt. 2001. Two Types of GGE Biplots for Analyzing Multi-Environment Trial Data. Crop Science, 41: 656-663.

Yan, W. and L. A. Hunt. 2001. Interpretation of Genotype × Environment Interaction for Winter Wheat Yield in Ontario. Crop Science, 41: 19-25.

Yan, W., L. A. Hunt, Q. Sheng and Z. Szlavnics. 2000. Cultivar Evaluation and Mega-Environment Investigation Based on the GGE Biplot. Crop Science, 40: 597-605.

Yan, W. and M. Kang. 2003. GGE Biplot Analysis: A Graphical Tool for Breeders, Geneticists, and Agronomists. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p. 288.

Yan, W., M. S. Kang, B. Ma, S. Woods and P. L. Cornelius. 2007. GGE Biplot vs. AMMI Analysis of Genotype-by-Environment Data. Crop Science, 47: 643-655.

Yan, W. and I. Rajcan. 2002. Biplot Analysis of Test Sites and Trait Relations of Soybean in Ontario. Crop Science, 42: 11-20.

Yan, W. and N. A. Tinker. 2006. Biplot analysis of multi-environment trial data: Principles and applications. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 86: 623-645.

Zobel, R. W., M. J. Wright and H. G. Gauch. 1988. Statistical Analysis of a Yield Trial. Agronomy Journal, 80: 388-393.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Adane Choferie Chobe, Abebe Delesa Ararsa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics

ISSN: 2305-297X (Online), 2308-121X (Print)

© ESci Journals Publishing. All Rights Reserved.