DESCRIPTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF DAMAGE INCURRED BY THE LONGHORN DATE PALM STEM BORER JEBUSAEA HAMMERSCHMIDTI REICHE, 1877 (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE) ON DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA LINNAEUS, 1753)

Hamadttu A. F. El-Shafie, Maged E. A. Mohammed

Abstract


The objective of this study was to ascertain the damage inflicted by the longhorn date palm borer Jebusaea hammerschmidti Reiche on date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. Close observations were made on randomly selected date palms in infested plantation located in Al-Ahsa oasis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. Damage information was gathered from field observation and laboratory close examination of infested palm parts. Larvae (grubs) were responsible for most of the damage, which was mainly found on trunks and frond bases. The main external diagnostic symptoms of damage were adult exit holes and light brown gummy exidute from the trunk that eventually turned into dark brown to black. Less obvious symptoms were presence of brown powdery tissues (frass) around infested palm, withering of fronds, and crown decline. Characteristic undulating feeding galleries appeared in cross section of the trunk and fronds bases as internal symptoms. The impact of damage on palm longevity, utilization of wood, and management of this pest are discussed.

Keywords


Longhorn beetle, Date palm, exit holes, feeding galleries, damage localization

Full Text:

PDF XPS

References


Al-Azawi, A. F. 1986. A survey of insect pests of date palms in Qatar, Date Palm Journal, 4 (2): 247-266.

Al-Deeb, M. A. 2012. Date palm insect, mite pests, and their management. In A. Manickavasagan, M. Mohamed Essa, & E. Sukumar (Eds.), Dates production, processing, food, and medicinal values (pp. 113–128). Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.

Al-Deeb, M. A. and M.Z. Khalaf. 2015. Longhorn stem borer and frond borer, p.63-72. In: Wakil, W., Faleiro, J.R. and Miller, T. A. (eds.). Sustainable pest management in date palm: Current status and emerging challenges, 1ST edition, Springer International Publishing, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-24397-9_4.

Aldryhim, Y. 2008. Date Palm Stem Borer, Pseudophilus testaceus Gah. (=Jebusea hammershmidti Reiche) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Encyclopedia of Entomology.Pp1155-1156. http://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-1-4020-6359-6_834.

Al-Gboori, B. and V. Krepl. 2010. Importance of date palms as a source of nutrition. Agricultura Tropica ET Subtropica, 43 (4), 341-347.

Autocad 2015 x64. Available at www.autodesk.com/product/autocad (accessed 20 August 2016).

Blumberg, D. 2008. Date palm arthropod pests and their management in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 36(5), 411–448.

Broschat, T. K. 2013. Palm morphology and anatomy. The environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. ENH1212 available at: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep473. Accessed 24 April 2016.

Carpenter, J. B. and H. S. Elmer. 1978. Pests and diseases of the date palm. United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Handbook, No. 527. Pp. 42.

Chao, C. C. and R. R. Krueger. 2007. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.): overview of biology, uses, and cultivation, HortScience 45, 1077–1082.

El-Haidari, H. S. 1981. New records of mites and insects infesting date palms in the Near East and North Africa, Date Palm Journal 1 (1), 133-134.

El-Juhany, L.I. 2010. Degradation of date palm trees and date production in Arab countries: causes and potential rehabilitation. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4(8), 3998-4010.

Elmer, H. S., J. B. Carpenter and L. J. Clotz. 1968. Pests and diseases of the date palm. Part I: Mites, insects and nematodes. F. A. O. Plant Protection Bulletin, 16, 77-91.

El-Shafie, H. A. F. 2012. Review: list of arthropod pests and their natural enemies identified worldwide on date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 3, 516-524.

El-Shafie, H. A. F. 2015. Biology, Ecology, and Management of the Longhorn Date Palm Stem Borer Jebusaea hammerschmidti (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Outlooks on Pest Management 26(1), 20-23.

Fathi, L. 2014. Structural and mechanical properties of the wood from coconut palms, oil palms and date palms. PhD. Dissertation, University of Hamburg Pp. 248. Available at: ediss.sub.uni-hamburg.de/volltexte/2014/6922/pdf/Dissertation.pdf Accessed 21 April 2016.

Fayyadh M. A., A. Z. Abdalqader, A. A. Fadel, E. A. Muhammed, A. A. Manea, M. A. Jaffer and A. A. Fadel. 2013. Formulation of biopesticide from Beauveria bassiana as part of biological control of date palm stem borer (Jebusaea hammershmidti). AAB Bioflux 5(2), 84-90.

Gharib, A. 1967. Pseudophilus testaceus Gah = Jebusaea hammerschmidti Reiche (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Phytopathology 25: 21-26.

Hammad, S. M., A. A. Kadous and M. M. Ramadan. 1981. Studies on insects and mites attacking date palm in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of Saudi Biological Society, 5: 251-268.

Hammad, S. M., A. A. Kadous and M. M. Ramadan.1983. Predators and parasites of date-palm insects in Al-Hassa and Al-Qatif regions, (Eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Proceedings of the first symposium on the date palm, March 23-25, 1982. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pp. 322-341.

Hill, D. S. 2008. Pests of crops in warmer climates and their control. Springer. The Netherland. Pp. 708.

Howard, F. W., D. Moore, R. M. Giblin-Davis and R. G. Abad. 2001. Insects on Palms. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

Khiari, R., M. F. Mhenni, M. N. Belgacem and E. Mauret. 2010. Chemical composition and pulping of date palm rachis and posidonia oceanica- a comparison with other wood and nonwood fiber sources. Bioresource Technology 101, 775-780.

Kinaway, M. and A. Al-Siyabi. 2012. Major arthropod pests of date palm in Arab countries. Proceeding of the first regional conference on the management of date palm pests. Al-Ain, 23-25 Sept. UAE. Pp. 43-62. http://www.aoad.org/PalmDConf2013.pdf.

Nixon, R. W. and R. T. Wedding. 1956. Age of date leaves in relation to efficiency of photosynthesis. American Society for Horticultural Science Proceeding 67, 265-269.

Sama, G., Buse, J., Orbach, E., Friedman, A., Rittner, O. and Chikatunov, V. (2010) A new catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Israel with notes on their distribution and host plants. Munis Entomology and Zoology, 5: 1-50.

Siddiq, M. and I. Greiby. 2014. Overview of date fruit production, postharvest handling, processing, and nutrition. In Dates: postharvest science, processing technology and health benefits. 1st edition. Edited by M. Siddiq, S. M. Aleid, and A. A. Kader. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom. Pp. 1–28.

Tomlinson, P. B. 1961. Anatomy of the monocotyledons-II Palmae (Ed. Metcalfe, C.R.): 10-63. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Tomlinson, P. B., and B. A. Huggett, B. A. 2012. “Cell Longevity and Sustained Primary Growth in Palm Stems.” American Journal of Botany 99, 1891–1902.

Zaid, A. and P. F. de Wet. 2002. Botanical and systematic description of the date palm, p. 18-48. In: A. Zaid (ed.). Date palm cultivation. Food and Agriculture Organization Plant Production and Protection Paper no. 156. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

 

International Journal of Entomological Research

ISSN: 2310-3906 (Online), 2310-5119 (Print).

© ESci Journals Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

.