Tamilselvan Pratheeba, Onkali Prabhavathi, Ragunathan Yuvarajan, Natarajan Murugan, Natarajan Devarajan


Dengue and Chikungunya are mosquito-borne disease, transmitted mainly by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. The control of mosquito larvae worldwide depends primarily on continued applications of synthetic insecticides. Repeated use of synthetic insecticides in agriculture and public health programs has caused multifarious problems, including toxic hazards to human and non-target organisms. Alternatively, extracts or essential oils from plants may be served as an alternative source of mosquito control agents. Hence, the present study chose various organic solvent extracts (Hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and water) of Ocimum gratissimum leaves for control of mosquito vectors. Results showed the chloroform extract has remarkable pupicidal and adulticidal activity and the values are LC50 19.28mg/l and LC50 16.08mg/l, respectively. Results of Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) fractions of chloroform extract indicate the presence of phenolic group of compounds. A total of 35 peaks was identified by Gas Chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis, five as considered as major compounds, i.e,  Hentriaconate, Hepta 2-1 trimethyl, tetracosahexane, Hexamethyl, Benzopyran and Dihydro tetramethyl trimethyl acetate. The present study shows that O. gratissimum can act as an efficient toxic agent against mosquitoes. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of O. gratissimum have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.


Ocimum gratissimum; Aedes agypti; mosquito control, GCMS

Full Text:



Amer, A., H. Mehlhorn. 2006. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae) 99(4): 466-472.

Amvam Zollo, P. H., L. Biyiti, F. Tchoumbougnang, C. Menut, G. Lamaty, P. Bouchet. 1998. Aromatic Plants of Tropical Central Africa. Part XXXII. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Thirteen Essential Oils from Aromatic Plants of Cameroon. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 13: 107 - 114.

Balandrin, M. F. 1985. Natural Plant Chemicals: Sources of Industrial and Medicinal Materials. Science, 228: 1154-1160.

Bhanu, P., R. Shukla, P. Singh, P. K. Mishra, N. K. Dubey, R. N. Kharwar. 2011. Efficacy of chemically characterized Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil as an antioxidant and a safe plant based antimicrobial against fungal and aflatoxin B1 contamination of spices. Food Research International, 44: 385–390.

Cheng, S. S., H. T. Chang, S. T. Chang, K. H. Tsai, W. J. Chen. 2003. Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae. Biores Technol, 89: 99-102.

Chretien, J. P., A. Anyamba, S. A. Bedno, R. F. Breiman, R. Sang, K. Sergon, A. M. Powers, C. O. Onyango, J. Small. 2007. Drought-associated chikungunya emergence along coastal East Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 76, 405 – 407.

Corrêa M. P. 1932. Dicionário das Plantas Úteis do Brasil, IBDF, Ministério da Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro, 63.

Eveline Solon Barreira Cavalcanti, Selene Maia de Morais, Michele Ashley A Lima, Eddie William Pinho Santana. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants against Aedes aegypti L. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 2004, 99(5): 541-544.

Finney D. J. 1971. Probit analysis. Cambridge University Press, London, 68–78.

Kalaivani, K., S. Senthilnathan and A. Ganesan. 2012. Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), Parasitology Research, 3(110): 1261-1268.

Khair-ul-Bariyah S. 2013. Comparison of the Physical Characteristics and GC/MS of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum, International Journal of Scientific Research in Knowledge, 1(9): 363-372.

Klimankova, E., K. Holadova, J. Hajslova, T. C. Ajka, J. Poustka, M. Koudela. 2008. Aroma profiles of five basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars grown under conventional and organic conditions. Food Chemistry 107: 464–472.

Kovendan, K., K. Murugan, S. P. Shanthakumar and S. Vincent. 2012. Evaluation of larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) (Family: Rubiaceae) against three mosquito vectors. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012) S362-S369.

Mohamed A. A. 2008. Larvicidal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), 103, (6): 1451-1453.

Nakaruma C. V., T. U. Nakaruma, E. Bando, A. F. N. Melo, D. A. G. Cortez and B. P. D. Filho. 1999. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L.essential Oil. Mem. Inst. Oswardo Cruz. 94: 675-578.

Nasare P. N. 2013. Qualitative and Quantitative analysis of Eugenol and Methyleugenol in Ocimum sanctum Linn, Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 3(3): 69-77.

Nwosu M. O and J. J. Okafor. 1995. Preliminary studies of the antifungal activities of some medicinal plants against Basidiobulus and some pathogenic fungi. Mycoses 38: 191-195.

Oliver B. 1960. Medicinal Plants in Nigeria, Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology, Nigeria, 42 pp.

Onajobi F. D. 1986. Smooth muscle contracting lipidic soluble principle in chromatographic functions of Ocimum gratissimum. J. Ethnopharmacol. 18: 3-11.

Pavela R. 2008. Larvicidal effects of various Euro-Asiatic plants against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res, 102:555–559.

Prajapati V., A. K. Tripathi, K. K. Aggarwal, S. P. S. Khanuja. 2005. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioresource Technology, (96)16: 1749–1757.

Proestos C, D. Sereli and M. Komaitis. 2006. Determination of phenolic compounds in aromatic plants by RP-HPLC and GC-MS, Food Chemistry, 95, 44–52.

Quereshi S., P. Purwar, R. Singh, N. A. Khan, A. Mani and J. Patel. 2011. Studies on Essential Oils and DNA Extraction from Ocimum species, Journal of Phytology, 3(8): 23-27.

Rajkumar, S. and A. Jebanesan. 2005. Repellency of volatile oils from Moschosma polystachyum and Solanum xanthocarpum against filarial vector Culex Zuinque fasciatus say. Tropical Biomedicine, 22(2): 139 – 142.

Sainsbury M and E. A. Sofowora. 1971. Essential oil from the leaves and inflorescence of Ocimum gratissimum. Phytochemistry 10: 3309-3310.

Senthilkumar N., P. Varma and G. Gurusubramanian. 2009. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities of some medicinal plants against the Malarial Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Liston) Parasitology Research, (104)2: 237-244.

Shaalan, E., D. V. Canyon, M. Younes, A. Wahab and H. Mansour. 2005. A review of botanical phytochemicals with mosquitocidal potential. Environment International, 31: 1149-1166.

Sosan M. B, F. B. Adewoyin and C. O. Adewunmi. 2001. Larvicidal properties of three indigenous plant oils on the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Niger J Natl Prod Med, 5: 30-33.

Sujatha C. H., V. Vasuki, T. Mariappan, M. Kalyanasundaram and P. K. Das. 1988. Evaluation of plant extracts for biological activity against mosquitoes. Int Pest Control, 30:122–124.

WHO, 1981. Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticides. WHO/ VBC/81.807. World Health Organization, Geneva.

WHOPES, 1981. Chemical Methods for the Control of Vectors and Pests of Public Health Importance, WHO/CTD/97.2, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Wojciech P and K. Teresa. 2002. Optimization of Thin Layer Chromatography, Encyclopedia of Chromatography: Taylor & Francis publication, 2002, pp 576-579.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


International Journal of Entomological Research

ISSN: 2310-3906 (Online), 2310-5119 (Print).

© ESci Journals Publishing. All Rights Reserved.