Bijiek G. Jieknyal


This study sought to identify strategies to improve food security and agricultural development in Unity State, South Sudan. In addition, the study was designed to investigate proper way to diminish gender inequality through improved agricultural extension services that target subsistence farmers in rural areas of Unity State. South Sudan is the world’s newest nation and due to the war for independence and ongoing civil war, the population suffers from extreme food insecurity. Subsistence farmers in Unity State are food insecure due, in part, to conflict, climate irregularities, the absence of appropriate technology, lack of access to agricultural markets, and gender inequality.  To better comprehend the food security conditions in Unity State, 19 key informants were interviewed, including agricultural professionals, agricultural scientists and extension specialists, and gender development workers who work with agricultural communities, profit, and non-profit organizations. All interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded using a semi-open coding scheme, and analyzed to discover themes. The identified themes included lack of access to infrastructure and capital and gender inequality. Findings showed that women are being systematically discriminated against with respect to education, civic engagement, and the ability to make independent decisions. Providing agricultural training and information about organizations that supply farm equipment to small farmers in rural areas seemed to be essential to improving food security. Results substantiated that when farmers received agricultural training and farm equipment, they would be able to farm. Subsequently, farmers would be capable of producing their own food and have a decent living that supports food security conditions.   

Full Text:




Action Contre La Faim. (2008). Sudan: ACF Nutrition survey - Preliminary results report, Rub Kona County, Unity State. Retrieved from http://reliefweb.int/report/sudan/sudan-acf-nutrition-survey-preliminary-results-report-rub-kona-county-unity-state

Adekunle, A. A. & Fatunbi, A.O. (2014). A new theory of change in African agriculture. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 21(7),1083-1096.

Adovor, D. (2010). Smallholder fruits and vegetable production and marketing possibilities: a baseline study of five selected dzongkhags in Bhutan. Journal of International Agriculture and Extension Education, 17(2), 46-80.

Afshar, H. (1985). Women, work, and ideology in the Third World. London: Tavistock Publications.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 665-683.

Ajzen, I. (2005). Attitudes, personality and behaviour, (2nd Ed.). Berkshire, UK: McGraw-Hill International.

Borresen, E.C., Camara, A.D., Coleman, M., McKune, S.L. Russo, S. L., Ryan, E. P., Ryley, T. D. A., Young, A.G. (2015). Climate change through a gendered lens: Examining livestock holder food security. Journal of Global Food Security, 6(2015), 1-8.

Calderbank, T. (2013.The women of South Sudan. Retrieved from https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/empowering-women-south-sudan

Carbon2Market. (2015). Mitigation of climate change through agroforestry. Retrieved from http://www.carbon2markets.org/content.cfm?ID=26

Challinor A, Wheeler T, Garforth C, Craufurd P, Kassam A. (2007). Assessing the vulnerability of food crop systems in Africa to climate change. Journal of Climate Change, 83(3), 381-99.

Committee on World Food Security. (2015). Framework for action for food security and nutrition in protracted crises. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-bc852e.pdf

Conforti, P. (2011). Looking ahead in world food and agriculture: Perspectives to 2050, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.

CORDAID (Catholic Organization for Relief and Development Aid). (2014). Baseline assessment of the impact of oil production on communities in Upper Nile and Unity State. Retrieved from https://www.cordaid.org/media/publications/Oil_Production_in_South_Sudan_Summary_Report_DEF__LRS_1.pdf

Das, E. & Baishya, D. (2015). Role of self-help groups in empowering rural women: A case study on selected SHGs in Rani Block of Kamrup District of Assam. Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(2), 27-31.

Davis, K. (2006). Farmer field schools: A boon or a bust for extension in Africa? Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 13(1), 91-97.

Dawe, D., Morales-Opazo, C., Bailie, J., Pierre, G. (2015). How much have domestic food prices increased in the new era of higher food prices? Journal of Global Food Security, 5(2015), 1-10.

DFID (Department for International Development). (2011). Scaling up nutrition: The UK’s position paper on undernutrition. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/67466/scal-up-nutr-uk-pos-undernutr.pdf

Duflo, D. (2012). Women, empowerment and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(4), 1051-1079.

Edward, J. K. (2014). A strategy for achieving gender equality in South Sudan. Retrieved from http://www.suddinstitute.org/publications/show/a-strategy-for-achieving-gender-equality-in-south-sudan/.

Fanzo, J. (2015). Ethical issues for human nutrition in the context of global food security and sustainable development. Journal of Global Food Security, 7, 15-23.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). (2009). Climate change in Africa: The threat to agriculture. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/ak915e/ak915e00.pdf

Human Rights Watch. (2015). They burned it all” Destruction of villages, killings, and sexual violence in Unity State South Sudan. Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/07/22/they-burned-it-all/destruction-villages-killings-and-sexual-violence-unity-state

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. (2015). Retrieved from http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/South%20Sudan/1/South%20Sudan%20Intended%20Nationally%20Determined%20%20%20%20Contribution.pdf

IPC (Integrated Food Security Phase Classification). (2015). May 2015 food security and nutrition analysis - Key messages. Retrieved from http://www.ipcinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ipcinfo/docs/IPC_South%20Sudan_April2015_Communication%20Summary.pdf

IPCC, 2007: Summary for policymakers. In: S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor & H.L. Miller (Eds.), Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. (pp. 1-18). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

IYC (International Year of Cooperatives). (2012). Agricultural cooperatives: paving the way for food security and rural development. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/ap431e/ap431e.pdf

Juanah, M. (2005). The role of micro-financing in rural poverty reduction in developing countries. Retrieved from https://www.wi.hs-wismar.de/documents/wismarer_diskussionspapiere/2005/0518_Juanah.pdf

Kalaba, K.F., Chirwa, P., Syampungani, S., & Ajayi, C. O. (2010). Contribution of agroforestry to biodiversity and livelihoods improvement in rural communities of Southern African regions. Retrieved from http://www.geo.mtu.edu/~asmayer/rural_sustain/biodiversity/kalaba_etal_2010.pdf

Kante, A., Igo, C. G., Frick, M. J. (2009). Enhancing effectiveness of extension efforts: A case study of Malian shea butter producers. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 16(1), 105-115.

Lokosang, L.B., Ramroop, S. & Zewotir, T. (2016). The effect of weakened resilience on food insecurity in protracted crisis: the case of South Sudan. Journal of Agriculture & Food Security, 5(2), 1-8.

Lybbert, T. & Summer, D. (2010). Agricultural technologies for climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries: Policy options for innovation and technology diffusion (Issue Brief No. 6). Retrieved from http://www.ictsd.org/downloads/2010/06/agricultural-technologies-for-climate-change-mitigation-and-adaptation-in-developing-countries_web.pdf.

Mersha, A.A., & Laerhoven, F.V. (2016). A gender approach to understanding the differentiated impact of barriers to adaptation: responses to climate change in rural Ethiopia. Regional Environmental Change. 16(6), 1701-1713.

Mishra, A.K. (2014). Climate change and challenges of water and food security. International Journal of Sustainable Environment, 3(1), 153-165.

Morton, J.F. (2007). The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Journal of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 19680-19685.

Mwaniki, A. (2006). Achieving food security in Africa: Challenges and issues. Retrieved from http://www.food-security.nl/sites/default/files/resource/achieving_food_security_in_africa.pdf

Nelson, G. C., Rosegrant, M. W., Koo, J., Robertson, R., Sulser, T., Zhu, T., ... & Magalhaes, M. (2009). Climate change: Impact on agriculture and costs of adaptation (Vol. 21). Washington, DC: Intl Food Policy Res Inst.

Pam, C., Tomich, T., van Noordwijik, M., Vost, S., Gockowski, J., Alegre, J., Verchot, L. (2004). Mitigating GHG emission in the humid tropics: case studies from the alternative to slash-and-burn program (ASB). Environmental Development Sustainability, 6, 145-162.

Petrea, R.E. (1996). Applying the theory of planned behavior to respiratory protection utilization and behaviors of East-Central Illinois pork producers. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2142/20659

Roberson, A. (2013). A new opportunity: Agricultural extension as a peacebuilding tool. Retrieved from http://www.usip.org/publications/new-opportunity-agricultural-extension-peacebuilding-tool

Roberts, T.G.& Rodriguez, M.T. (2014). Examining Livelihood Diversification for Chronically Food Insecure Households in Ethiopia. Journal of International of Agriculture and Extension Education. 21(2). doi: 10.5191/jiaee.2014.21207.

Rola, A. C., Jamias, S. B., & Quizon, J. B. (2002). Do FFS graduates retain and share what they learn? An investigation in Iloilo, Philippines. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 9(1), 65-75.

Saito, K.A., Mekonnen, H. & Spurling, D. (1994). Raising productivity of women farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa (World Bank Discussion Paper 230). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Serra, R. & McKune, S. (2016). Climate information services and behavioral change: The case of Senegal Retrieved from http://sites.clas.ufl.edu/sahelresearch/files/SRG_WorkingPaper_Serra_McKune_Final.pdf

Thompson, J., Millstone, E., Scoones, I., Ely, A., Marshall, F. (2007). Agri-food system dynamics: Pathways to sustainability in an era of uncertainty. Brighton, UK: STEPS Center.

Thorlakson, T. (2011). Reducing subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to climate change: the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya (Occasional Paper 16). Retrieved fromhttp://www.worldagroforestry.org/downloads/Publications/PDFS/OP11183.pdf

UNDP (United Nation Development Program). (2012). Environmental impacts, risks and opportunities and assessment. Retrieved from http://www.undp.org/content/dam/southsudan/library/Reports/southsudanotherdocuments/EIRO%20Report-fr-website.pdf

Verchot, L.V., Noordwijk, M.V, Kandji, S., Tomich, T., Ong, C., Albrecht, A., Mackensen, J., Bantilan, C., Anupama, K., Palm, C. (2007). Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry. Journal of Mitigation Adaption Strategies Global Change, 12, 901-918.

World Health Organization. (2013). Gender, women and health. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/gender/whatisgender/en/

Zoellner, J., Krzeski, E., Harden, S., Cook, E., Allen, K., & Estabrooks, P. A. (2012). Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(11), 1774-1784. DOI: 10.1016/j.jand.2012.06.368.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Agricultural Extension




International Journal of Agricultural Extension

ISSN: 2311-6110 (Online), 2311-8547 (Print)

© ESci Journals Publishing. All Rights Reserved.