Adelakun K.M., Kehinde A.S., laoye O., Ihidero A.A., Dalha A.


The potential application of blood reference range for crocodile is a basis that can provide important clinical information about health and physiological condition of the animal. This study investigates serum biochemistry of Nile crocodile from Kano Zoological Garden, Kano, Nigeria. Six (6) adult Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) were captured from crocodile pond in the zoo. Blood was collected from post-occipital sinus of the physically restrain crocodile and used for serum biochemical parameters. The results revealed the Total Serum Protein (TSP) concentration of 9.2g/Ɩ, albumin concentration which is a common plasma protein is 43g/Ɩ while globulin concentration is 54g/Ɩ. Cholesterol concentration measure is registered at 5.2mmol/Ɩ with High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) of 1mmol/Ɩ and 1.35mmol/Ɩ respectively. Creatinine: a breakdown product of creatinine which is an important part of muscle tissue is 44umol/Ɩ. Uric acid which is a primary catabolic end product of protein is 0.18mmol/Ɩ while glucose and triglyceride are 4.94mmol/Ɩ and 2.24mmol/Ɩ respectively while enzymes which include Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration is 6U/Ɩ, Aspartate aminotransferase concentration is 5U/Ɩ while Alkaline Phosphatase is 20U/Ɩ. The biochemical values recorded were compared with available data on farm Nile crocodile. Clearly, nutritional status, age, gender, season, physiology and environment should be considered if clinical pathology is to be employed as a diagnostic tool.


Biochemical; clinical information; plasma enzymes; physiological

Full Text:



Abell, L. L., B. B. Levy, F. E. Brodic and J. Kendall. 1952. The mechanism of inhibition of lipoprotein synthesis by orotic acid. Journal of Biochemistry, 195: 357.

Bauer, J. D. 1982. Clinical laboratory methods. University of Michigan, Michigan USA.

Bergmeyer, H. U. 1985. Approved recommendation on IFCC methods for the measurement of catalytic concentration of enzymes. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, 24: 497-510.

Bergmeyer, H. U., G. N. Bowes, M. Hørder and D. W. Moss. 1976. Provisional recommendations on IFCC methods for the measurement of catalytic concentrations of enzymes Part 2. IFCC method for aspartate aminotransferase. Clinica Chimica Acta, 70: F19-F42.

Bergmeyer, J. and M. Grassl. 1983. Methods of enzymatic analysis. Verlag Chemie, Berlin, Germany.

Botha, H., W. Van Hoven and L. J. Guillette Jr. 2011. The decline of the Nile crocodile population in Loskop Dam, Olifants River, South Africa. Water SA, 37.

Campbell, T. W. 1996. Clinical Pathology, In: D. S. Mader, (ed.), Reptile Medi¬cine and Surgery Saunders, Philadelphia. p. 248-257.

Campbell, T. W. 2006. Clinical Pathology of Reptiles. Reptile Medicine and Surgery. Elsevier, p. 453-470.

Cheesbrough, M. 2005. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Foggin, C. M. 1987. Diseases and disease control on crocodile farms in Zimbabwe. Wildlife management. Crocodiles and alligators, GJW Webb, SC Manolis and PJ Whitehead, (eds.). Surrey Beatty, Chipping Norton, New South Wales, in association with the Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory [Australia]: 351-362.

Frye, F. L. 1991. Biomedical and surgical aspects of captive reptile husbandry. Kreiger Publishing, Malabar, Florida.

Guillette, J. L. J., M. C. Cox and D. A. Crain. 1996. Plasma Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Concentration during the Reproductive Cycle of the American Alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). General and Comparative Endocrinology, 104: 116-122.

Johnson, C. W., D. L. Timmons and P. E. Hall. 2003. Essential laboratory mathematics: concepts and applications for the chemical and clinical laboratory technician. Cengage Learning, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Kanchanapangka, S., P. Youngprapakorn, K. Pipatpanukul, S. Krobpan and N. Kongthaworn. 1999. Differentiation of crocodilian granulocytes using histochemical techniques. in: C. R. Lavilla-Pitogo & E. R. Cruz-Lacierda (Eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Diseases in Asian Aquaculture. Libraries Australia, p. 43.

Lawan, A. 2011. Kano Zoo underfunded. In press; Vanguard Newspaper. May 24, 2011, 3:41 pm

Lawrence, K. 1987. Seasonal variation in blood biochemistry of long term captive Mediterranean tortoises (Testudo graeca and T hermanni). Research in Veterinary Science, 43: 379-383.

Lovely, C. J., J. M. Pittman and A. J. Leslie. 2007. Normal haematology and blood biochemistry of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 78.

Marks, V. 1996. An improved glucose-oxidase method for determining blood, C.S.F. and urine glucose levels. Clinica Chimica Acta, 251: 19-24.

Millan, J. M., A. Janmaat, K. C. Richardson, L. K. Chambers and K. R. Fomiatti. 1997. Reference ranges for biochemical and haematological values in farmed saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) yearlings. Australian Veterinary Journal, 75: 814-817.

Oliveira, M. A. 2004. Patologia Clínica de Répteis.

Osagiobare, L. 2013. Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of female Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in Federal College of Wildlife Management. A Project for Higher National Diploma in Wildlife and Ecotourism Management. Federal College of Wildlife Management, New Bussa, Nigeria, p. 28-33.

Padilla, L. E., G. K. Vallis and C. W. Rowley. 2011. Probabilistic Estimates of Transient Climate Sensitivity Subject to Uncertainty in Forcing and Natural Variability. Journal of Climate, 24: 5521-5537.

Stein, G. 1996. Hematologic and blood chemistry values in reptiles, In: D. R. Mader, (ed.), Reptile medicine and surgery. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. p. 473-483.

Thrall, M. A., D. C. Baker, T. W. Campbell, E. D. Lassen, R. Alan, D. Denicola, M. G. Fettman and G. Weiser. 2004. Veterinary hematology and clinical chemistry. Wiley- Blackwell, San Francisco.

Tietz, N. W., A. D. Rinker and L. M. Shaw. 1983. IFCC methods for the measurement of catalytic concentration of enzymes Part 5. IFCC method for alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase, alkaline optimum, EC 3.1. 3.1). Journal of clinical chemistry and clinical biochemistry, 21: 731.

Weichselbaum, C. T. E. 1946. An Accurate and Rapid Method for the Determination of Proteins in Small Amounts of Blood Serum and Plasma. American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 16: 40-49.


  • There are currently no refbacks.



Journal of Zoo Biology

© ESci Journals Publishing. All Rights Reserved.