OF PLEASURE, POWER AND PIETY: USES AND PERCEPTIONS OF GARDENS AND MANAGED FLORAL SPACES IN EARLY INDIA

Nupur Dasgupta

Abstract


The Judicial system of India and France was highlighted by French travelers and adventurers who traveled in India during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Their records became significant source of information to compare the judicial system of both the countries. This article makes attempt to give these voyagers treatise on judicial system of the oriental and occidental worlds. In which significant French travelers such as Francois Bernier, Jean Chardin, Anquetil Duperron and Comte de Modave wrote extensively about the positive and negatives of the judicial system of both countries. Several first-hand French sources [translated and untranslated] have been referred in this article to make a comprehensive review of judicial system of India through French prospective.


Keywords


Ancient India; Early Medieval; Floral Space; Hermitages; Landscaping; Royal garden

Full Text:

PDF XPS

References


Acharya, P. K. (1998 reprint). Indian Architecture According to Manasara Silpasastra. Manasara Series, vol. II. Delhi: LPP Publications, Ch II, 34 – 35.

Ali, D. (2006). Courtly Culture and Political Life in Early Medieval India. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press.

Ali, D. (2012). Botanical Technology and garden Culture in Somesvara’s Manasollasa. In Daud Ali & E J. Flatt (Eds.), Garden and Landscape Practices in Pre-colonial India, London, New York: Routledge, 2012, 54 – 73.

Barua, B.M. (1943/1990 reprint). Inscriptions of Asoka. Calcutta: Sanskrit College Research Series, No. 142, 2 – 3.

Beal, Samuel. 2003. Si – Yu- Ki, Buddhist Records of the Western World, Translation from the Chinese of Hiuen Tsiang (A.D. 629). (vols. 1-2). New Delhi: Reprint Asian Educational Services.

Behl, B. K. (2005). The Ajanta Caves, Ancient Paintings of Buddhist India. London: Thames and Hudson.

Bronkhorst, J. (1998). The two Sources of Indian Asceticism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsiadass, 30 – 36.

Buitenen, J. A. B. van. (1973). The Mahābhārata (Vols. 1-3.). Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1, xxiii – xxv.

Bushnell, R. W. (2003). Green Desire: Imagining Early Modern English Gardens, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 13 – 19.

Cunningham, A. (1879). The Stupa of Bharhut, A Buddhist Monument Ornamented with Numerous sculptures illustrative of Buddhist Legend and History in the Third Century B.C. London: W.H. Allen & Co., Plates, XIX, XXX, XXXI, XXXIII.

Cunningham, A. (1854). The Bhilsa Topes, or Buddhist Monuments of Central India. London: Smith, Elder & Co., 222 – 223; 225.

Curtius Rufus, Q. (1946). Quintus Curtius History of Alexander. With an English translation by John C. Rolfe. (Vols. 1-2). Cambridge: Mass., Harvard Univ. Press, VIII.9. 35.

Dhruva, H.K. (1923). Mudrarakshasa or the Signet Ring, A Sanskrit Drama in Seven Acts. (Edited with English Translation). Poona: The Oriental Book-Supplying Agency, x – xi.

Dutt, M.N. (2004). Mahābhārata, Sanskrit Text with English Translation. (Vols 1 – 9). Delhi: Parimal Publications.

Feer, M. Leon. (Ed). (1884 - 98). Samyutta Nikaya, (Parts 1 – 5). London: Henry Frowde, 5, 141 – 2.

Fleet, J. F. (1898 – 99). “Inscriptions at Managoli”. Epigraphia Indica, 5, 9 – 31.

Fleet, J. F. (1882). The Dynasties of the Kanarese Districts of the Bombay Presidency. Bombay: Government Central Press.

Foucher, A. (1994). The Beginnings of Buddhist Art: And Other Essays in Indian and Central-Asian Archaeology, Reprint New Delhi, Asian Educational Services.

Halder, R. R. (1931 – 32). “Two Paramara Inscriptions”, Epigraphia Indica, 21, 41 – 50.

Hiltebeitel, Alf. (2001). Rethinking Mahabharata: A Reader’s Guide to the Education of Dharma King. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 17 -18.

Hultzsch, E. (1891). South Indian Inscriptions, 2 (1).

Hultzsch, E. (1925). Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, 1, 28 – 29.

Hultzsch, E. (1981). Dhar Prasasti of Arjunavarman: Parijatamanjarinatika by Madana, Epigraphia Indica, 8, 96 – 122.

Hultzsch, E., Venkayya V. & Sastri H.K. (1987 reprint). South Indian Inscriptions. 2 (1 – 4).

Jayasawal, K.P. and R.D Banerji. (1929 – 30). The Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela, Epigraphia Indica, 20, 71 -89.

Kale, M.R. (2011). Mudrārākshasa of Viśākhadatta (English translation). Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Kangle, R.P. (2010). The Kauṭilya Arthaśāstra. (Parts 1 -3). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Kaul, Shonaleeka. (2010). Imagining the Urban: Sanskrit and the City in Early India. Ranikhet: Permanent Black.

Kielhorn, F. (1894). Bhera - Ghat stone inscription of Queen Alhanadevi. Epigraphia Indica, 2, 7 – 17.

Majumdar, N.G., (2003). Inscriptions of Bengal. Kolkata: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, 25 – 41.

McClish, M. & Olivelle, P. (2012). The Arthaśāstra, Selections from the Classic Indian Text on Statecraft. Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Inc., xix- xxi.

Miller, B.S. (1984). Kālidāsa’s World and His Plays. In Barbara Stoler Miller (Ed.), The Plays of Kālidāsa, Theatre of Memory. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 3 – 41.

Monier-Williams, M. (1876). Śakuntalā a Sanskrit Drama, in Seven Acts by Kalidasa. (In Sanskrit). Oxford: Clarendon, 21.

Neelis, Jason. (2011). Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange within and beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 191.

Panchamukhi, R.S. (1929 – 30). Two Sinda Inscriptions from Benachamatti: Saka 1088 and Saka 1109, Epigraphia Indica, 20, 109 -122.

Patil, D.R. (1973). Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 96 – 99.

Ryder, A. W. (1905). The Little Clay Cart, Mrcchakaṭika. (English Translation). Cambridge, Massachusettes: Harvard University Press.

Sadhale, N., & Nene, Y.L. (2010). Bhudharakrida: (Royal Enjoyment on a Pleasure Mound) in Manasollasa. Asian Agri-History. 14 (4), 319 – 335.

Sastri, V. S. (1946). Varahamihira’s Brihat Samhita. (English Translation and Notes). Bangalore: V.B. Soobbiah & Sons.

Sharma, V. D. (1929). Amarakosha of Amarasinha. (In Sanskrit). Bombay: Khemraj ShriKrishnadas.

Shimada, Akira. (2012). The Use of Garden Imagery in Early Indian Buddhism. In Daud Ali & E. J. Flatt (Eds.), Garden and Landscape Practices in Pre-colonial India. London, New York: Routledge. 18 – 38.

Shrigondekar, G. K. (Ed.) (1925). Manasollasa. (Vols. 1 -3). (In Sanskrit). Baroda: Central Library.

Telang, K. T. (1915). Mudrarakshasa by Visakhadatta (edited with critical and explanatory notes), Bombay: Nirnay Sagar Press, 27.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


  Journal of South Asian Studies
ISSN: 2307-4000 (Online), 2308-7846 (Print)
© ESci Journals Publishing. All Rights Reserved.