TROGODERMA GRANARIUM (EVERTS) (COLEOPTERA: DERMESTIDAE), AN ALARMING THREAT TO RICE SUPPLY CHAIN IN PAKISTAN

Sabyan F. Honey, Babar Bajwa, Muhammad S. Mazhar, Waqas Wakil

Abstract


Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) is designated as a quarantine insect pest worldwide due to its voracious feeding on stored grains. Development of insecticidal resistance and its ability to withstand starvation for longer time makes it one of the most destructive arthropod for stored products. It is primarily known as pest of stored wheat, where it can cause up to 30% postharvest losses. During recent years (2010-2014), the reports of occurrence of Khapra beetle in rice supply chains of Pakistan and stiff competition in world rice market resulted in decline of rice exports from 42 million tons to 37 million tons to partner countries and caused 1000 million dollars value loss to rice industry. This review briefly describes the current status and economic impact of Khapra beetle under storage conditions with special focus on its effects on rice supply chain in Pakistan. Potential management practices to regulate population of this arthropod under storage conditions are also given.

Keywords


Khapra beetle; monitoring; Pakistan; rice; severity; storag

Full Text:

PDF XPS

References


Abdelghany, A.Y., D. Suthisut, P.G. Fields. 2015. The effect of diapause and cold acclimation on the cold-hardiness of the warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Can. Entomol. 147: 158-168.

Abdel-Kawy, FK., 1999. Effect of gamma-irradiation on some biological activities of the larval stage of the khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Col., Dermestidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 123: 201-204.

Ahmed, K.N., M. Khatun, M.M. Rahman. 1991. Biological notes on Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). J. Agri. Soc. Bangl. Sci. 17: 65-67.

Ahmedani, M.S., A. Khaliq, M.I. Haque. 2007. Scope of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner as an alternative to methyl bromide against Trogoderma granarium Everts larvae. Pak. J. Botany. 39: 871-880.

Ahmedani, M.S., M.I. Haque, S.N. Afzal, M. Naeem, T. Hussain and S. Naz. 2011. Quantitative losses and physical damage caused to wheat kernel (Triticum aestivum L.) by khapra beetle infestation. Pak. J. Bot. 43(1): 659-668.

Ahmedani, M.S., N. Shaheen, M.Y. Ahmedani, M. Aslam. 2007. Status of phosphine resistance in khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Everts) strains collected from remote villages of Rawalpindi district. Pak. Entomol. 29: 95-102.

Ali, S.S., M. Asif, S.P. Sirvastava, P. Shankar. 2011. First report on susceptibility of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) against Steinernema masoodi and its in vivo production. Trends in Biosci. 4:140-141.

Arivudainambi, B.N.M. and B.R.P. Singh. 2003. Fumigant toxicity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed oil volatiles against khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium. Annals of Plant Protec. Sci. 11: 207-211.

Arthur, F.H., 2012. Aerosols and contact insecticides as alternatives to methyl bromide in flour mills, food production facilities, and food warehouses. J. Pest Sci. 85: 323-329.

Arthur, V. and A.Silva. 2007. Control of Trogoderma granarium through of gamma radiation of cobalt-60. International Nuclear Atlantic Conference 2007. September 29–October 5 2007; Santos, Brazil.

Barak, A.V., 1989. Development of a new trap to detect and monitor khapra beetle (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 1470 - 1477.

Bell, C.H., S.M. Wilson, H.J. Banks. 1984. Studies on the toxicity of phosphine to tolerant stages of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 20, 111-117.

Crop Protection Compendium (CPC), 2005. On line version of the Global & South East Asian region. CABI Publishing, U.K. http://www.cabicompendium.org/cpc/home.asp.

Dale, M.J., 1996. A review of plant material used for controlling insect pest of stored products. NRI Bulletin No. 65, Chatham, U.J. Natural resource institute.

Desmarchelier, J.M. and R. Wohlgemuth. 1984. Response of several species of insects to mixtures of phosphine and carbon dioxide. Controlled atmosphere and fumigation in grain storages. In: Ripp BE, editor. Proceedings of International Symposium on Practical Aspects of Controlled Atmosphere &Fumigation in grain storages, 11–22 April 1983; Perth,Australia. Pp. 75–81.

Egwurube, E., B.T. Magaji, Z. Lawal. 2010. Laboratory evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed and leaf powders for the control of khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) infesting groundnut. Internat. J. Agric. Biol. 12: 638-640.

Eliopoulos, P.A., 2013. New approaches for tackling the khapra beetle. CAB Rev. 8: 1-14.

Elamin, M.M. and A.A. Satti. 2010. Insecticidal potentialities of Balanites aegyptiaca extracts against the khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium). Global Adv. Res. J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. 2: 5-10.

El-Lakwah, F.A., R. Wohlgemuth and M.M. Khattab. 1989. Efficiency of phosphine and combinations of phosphine with carbon dioxide against khapra beetle larvae Trogoderma granarium Everts (Col., Dermestidae). Anzeiger-fur-Schadlingskunde-Pflanzenschutz-Umweltschutz. 62:85-88.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). 2011. EPPO Standards: EPPO A1 and A2 lists of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests.

Evans, D.E., 1987. Some biological and physical constraints to the use of heat and cold for disinfesting and preserving stored products. In: Donahaye, E., Navarro, S. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection, Tel Aviv, Israel, 21-26 September 1986. Maor-Wallach Press, Jerusalem, Israel, pp. 149-164.

Fields, P., B. Subramanyam and R. Hulasare. 2012. Extreme temperatures. In: Hagstrum, D.W., Phillips, T.W., Cuperus, G. (Eds.), Stored-product Protection. Kansas State University, Kansas, USA, pp. 297-304.

Fields, P.G. and N.D.G. White. 2002. Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored product and quarantine insects. Annu. Rev. . 47: 331-359.

Fields, P.G., 2001. Control of insects in post-harvest: low temperature. In: Vincent, C., Panneton, B., Fleurat-Lessard, F. (Eds.), Physical Control Methods in Plant Protection. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, INRA Paris. Berlin, Germany, pp. 95-149.

Gao, M., W. Chuanyao, S. Li and S. Zhang. 2004. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for Trogoderma granarium Everts and Callosobruchus chinensis L. in food and agricultural products. In: Loaharanu P, Rubio TW, editors. Irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment of food and agricultural commodities. Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. IAEA, Vienna, Austria. pp. 75–85.

Ghanem, I. and M. Shamma. 2007. Effect of non-ionizing radiation (UVC) on the development of Trogoderma granarium Everts. J. Stor. Products Res. 43: 362-366.

Ghanem, I., A. Audeh, A. Abualnaser and G. Tayoub. 2013. Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Miller on larval of Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts). Short communication. Herla rolonica. 59: 86-96.

Green, L., 2011. Khapra Beetle detected in Rice. Available at: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/emergency/downloads/nprg-khapra.pdf.

Hava, J., 2011. Dermestidae of the world (Coleoptera). Catalogue of the all known taxons. Available from: URL: http:// www.dermestidae.wz.cz/catalogue_of_the_all_known_taxons.pdf.

Hinton, H.E., 1945. A monograph of the beetles associated with stored products. Vol. 1. British Museum (Natural History), London, UK.

Howe, R.W., 1952. Entomological problems of food storage in northern Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research 43, 111-144.

Ibrahim. and I.A. Sahar. 2011. Repellent and insecticidal activity of derived plant oils against some stored grain insects. J. Plant Prot. Path. 2: 893-903.

Isman, M.B. and C.M. Machial. 2006. Pesticides based on plant essential oils: from traditional practice to commercialization. In M. Rai and M.C. Carpinella (eds.), Naturally occurring bioactive compounds, Elsevier, BV, pp- 29-44.

Jakhar, B.L. and S.L. Jat. 2010. Efficacy of plant oils as grain protectants against Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts in wheat. Indian J. Entomol. 72: 205-208.

Jood, S., A. C. Kapoor and R. Singh. 1993. Available carbohydrates of cereal grains as affected by storage and insect infestation. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 43: 45-54.

Jood, S. and A.C. Kapoor. 1993. Protein and uric acid contents of cereal grains as affected by insect infestation. Food Chemistry 46: 143-146.

Kamionek, M. and H. Sander. 1977. The pathogenicity of Neoaplectana carpocapsae in relation to its hosts in two-species combinations. Bulletin of the crumb Acade' Polish Science , Series of Biological Sciences. 25: 247-249.

Karnavar, G.K., 1972. Mating behavior and fecundity in Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Stored Product Res. 8: 65-69.

Khashaveh, A., M.H. Safaralizadeh and Y. Ghosta. 2011. Pathogenicity of Iranian isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Biharean Biologist. 5: 51-55.

Khosla, R., B.S. Chhillar and R.K. Kashyap. 2005. Efficacy of insecticidal dusts on natural infestation of Trogoderma granarium (Everts) on wheat seeds. Ann. Biol. 21: 69-72.

Kulkarni, N.V., S. Gupta, R. Kataria and N. Sathyanarayana. 2015. Morphometric analysis and reproductive system studies of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Internat. J. Sci. Res. Publ. 5: 1-8.

Lee, S., C.J. Peterson and J.R. Coats. 2003. Fumigation toxicity of monoterpenoids to several stored product insects. J. Stored Prod. Res. 39: 77-85.

Lindgren, D.L., L.E. Vincent and H.E. Krohne. 1955. The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts. Hilgardia. 24: 1-36.

Linnie, M.J., 1999. Evaluation of temperature regimes for the control of insect pests of museum collections. Available at: Collect. Forum 33: 76-89.

Lowe, S., M. Browne, S. Boudjelas and M. De. Poorter. 2000. 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species: a selection from the global invasive species database. Invasive Species Specialist Group, World Conservation Union (IUCN). Available from: URL: http://www.issg.org/booklet.pdf.

Mansoor-UL, H., M. Sagheer, E. Ullah, F. Ahmad and W. Wakil. 2006. Insecticidal activity of different doses of Acorus calamus oil against Trogoderma granarium (Everts). Pak. J. Agric. Sci. 43: 55-58.

Mathlein, R., 1961. Studies on some major storage pests in Sweden, with special reference to their cold resistance. Natl. Inst. Plant Prot. 12: 1-43.

MBTOC., 2010. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee (MBTOC). Report of the Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.

Ministry of Commerce., 2016. Sectorial competitiveness and value chain analysis; Rice value chain analysis in Pakistan. Ministry of commerce, Govt. of Pakistan, pp- 46.

Morison, G.D. 1925. The khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts). Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. 21: 10-13.

Morschel, J.R., 1972. Insect pests not known to occur in Australia. Part 1. Commonwealth of Australia. Department of Health, Canberra.

Myers, S.W. and D.W. Hagstrum. 2012. Quarantine. In: Hagstrum DW, Phillips TW, Cuperus G, editors. Stored Product Protection. Kansas State University, Kansas, USA. Pp. 297-304.

Nair, K.S.S. and A.K. Desai., 1972. Some new findings on factors inducing diapause in Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Stored Product Res. 8: 27-54.

Odeyemi, O.O. and M.O. Ashamo. 2005. Efficacy of neem plant (Azadirachta indica) extracts in the control of Trogoderma granarium, a pest of stored groundnuts. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 112: 586-593.

EPPO., 1981. Data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 121, Trogoderma granarium. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 11(1).

Parashar, M.P., 2006. Post-harvest profile of black gram. Govt. India, Ministry of Agric. Deptt. Agric. And Coop. Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Nagpur-440001.

Pasek, J.E., 1998. Khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts): pest-initiated pest risk assessment, pp. 32. USDA APHIS, Raleigh, NC.

Pasek, J.E., 1998. USDA Pest Risk Assessment; Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium. USDA APHIS Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, New Castle USA.

Pasek, J.E., 2004. USDA Pest Risk Assessment: Khapra Beetle. USDA APHIS, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology Raleigh Plant Protection Center, Raleigh, NC. The Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, Purdue University, USA.

Phillips, T.W. and J.E. Throne. 2010. Biorational approaches to managing stored product insects. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 55: 375-397.

Prasad, H., P. Bhatia, and G.R. Sethi. 1977. Estimation of feeding losses by Trogoderma granarium Everts in wheat. Indian J. Entomol. 39: 377-378.

Rahman, K. A., G.S. Sohi, and A.N. Sapra. 1945. Studies on stroed grain pests in the Punjab VI. Biology of Trogoderma granarium Everts. The Indian J. Agric. Sci. 15: 85-92.

Rahman, M.M., W. Islam and K.N. Ahmad. 2009. Functional response of the predator Xylocoris flavipes to three stored product insect pests. Internat. J. Agric. Biol. 11: 316-320.

Rajendran, S., 2002. Postharvest pest losses. In: Pimentel, D. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Pest Management. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 654-656.

Rajendran, S., V.L. Kumar and V. Sriranjini. 2008. Fumigation of grain stacks with sulfuryl fluoride. Int. Pest Control. 50: 192-195.

Sagheer, M., M. Ul. Hassan, Z. Ali, M. Yasir, Q. Ali and K. Ali. 2013. Evaluation of essential oils of different citrus species against Trogoderma granarium (Everts) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) collected from Vehari and Faisalabad districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Pak. Entomol. 35: 37- 41.

Stibick, J., 2007. New Pest Response Guidelines: khapra Beetle. USDA–APHIS–PPQ–Emergency and Domestic Programs, Riverdale, Maryland. Available from: URL: http:// www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ online_manuals.shtml.

Strang, T., 1992. A review of published temperatures for the control of pest insects in museums. Available at: Collect. Forum. 8: 41-67.

Tayoub, G., A. Odeh and I. Ghanem. 2012a. Chemical composition and efficacy of essential oil from Juniperus foetidissima wild against the Khapra beetle. Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants. 2: 501-508.

Tayoub, G., A. Abualnaser and I. Ghanem. 2010b. Toxicity of two essential oils from Eucalyptus globulus Labail and Origanum syriacum L. on larvae of Khapra beetle. Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants. 2: 240-245.

Traynier, R.M.M., R.K. Schumacher and D.M. Lau. 1994. Oviposition site selection by Tineola bisselliella, tinea spp. (Lepidoptera: tineidae) and Anthrenus flavipes (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. 30: 321-329.

Verma, J. and N.K. Dubey. 1999. Prospective of botanicals and microbial products as pesticides of tomorrow. Curr. Sci. 76: 172-179.

Verma, A. K. and Wadhi, S. R., 1978. Susceptibility of walnut pests to carbon dioxide and nitrogen and effect of gas storage on keeping quality of walnut kernels. Indian J. Entomol. 40, 290-298.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


 

International Journal of Entomological Research

ISSN: 2310-3906 (Online), 2310-5119 (Print).

© ESci Journals Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

.