Structural aspects of on-farm demonstrations: Key considerations in the planning and design process

Eleni Pappa, Alex Koutsouris, Julie Ingram, Lies Debruyne, Hanne Cooreman, Fleur Marchand


Research on the adoption and diffusion of innovations has consistently confirmed that one of farmers’ most commonly cited sources of information and ideas is other farmers. Demonstrations concern the practical exhibition (and explanation) of how something works and have for long been one of the most important extension techniques. On-farm demonstrations facilitate an effective learning situation for farmers to “See the crops themselves”, “interact with the scientists and extension workers on the field”, and “get doubts clarified themselves”. In the literature concerning on-farm demonstrations, a wide range of structural characteristics are described. These differ according to the actors/networks involved and their roles, the audience/ attendees, the network structure and its characteristics, resources, finances and incentives, and characteristics related to the farm (geographic location, accessibility, etc.). The current paper will elaborate on such structural characteristics and will thus contribute to building a provisional model of the linkages between rationale (goals, objectives, topics), structural factors, functions and results (output, outcomes and impact).


On-farm demonstrations, structural characteristics, actors, networks, resources, event characteristics.

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